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Accounting principles for the consolidated financial statements

Basic information

Wärtsilä Corporation is a Finnish listed company organised under the laws of Finland and domiciled in Helsinki. The address of its registered office is John Stenbergin ranta 2, 00530 Helsinki. Wärtsilä Corporation is the parent company in Wärtsilä Group.

Wärtsilä is a global leader in advanced technologies and complete lifecycle solutions for the marine and energy markets. By emphasising sustainable innovation and total efficiency, Wärtsilä maximises the environmental and economic performance of the vessels and power plants of its customers.

In 2016, Wärtsilä’s net sales totalled EUR 4.8 billion with approximately 18,000 employees. The company has operations in over 200 locations in more than 70 countries around the world. Wärtsilä is listed on the Nasdaq Helsinki.

These consolidated financial statements were authorised for release by the Board of Directors of Wärtsilä Corporation on 26 January 2017, after which, in accordance with the Finnish Corporate Act, the shareholders have a right to approve or reject the financial statements in the Annual General Meeting. The Annual General Meeting also has a possibility to decide upon changes in the financial statements.

Basis of preparation

The consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) by applying IAS and IFRS standards and their SIC and IFRIC interpretations, which were in force on 31 December 2016. International Financial Reporting Standards refer to the standards, and their interpretations, approved for application in the EU in accordance with the procedures stipulated in the EU’s regulation (EC) No. 1606/2002 and embodied in Finnish accounting legislation and the statutes enacted under it. The notes to the consolidated financial statements also comply with the Finnish accounting and corporate legislation.

Reporting is based on the historical cost convention. Exceptions are the available-for-sale financial assets, the financial assets and liabilities at fair value through the statement of income, hedged items under fair value hedging and the cash-settled share-based payment transactions which are measured at fair value. The figures are in millions of euros.

IFRS amendments

In 2016, the Group has applied the amendment to IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements - Disclosure Initiative. The amendments clarify the application of the materiality concept and judgement when determining where and in what order information is presented in the financial disclosures. This has some effect on the notes of the financial statements.

Management judgement and use of estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in accordance with the IFRS requires management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the valuation of the reported assets and liabilities and other information, such as contingent assets and liabilities and the recognition of income and expenses in the statement of income. Although these estimates and assumptions are based on management’s best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results may differ from the estimates. The most important items in the consolidated statements, which require management’s judgements and which may include uncertainty, consist of the following:

Sales revenue is typically recognised when the product or service has been delivered, its value has been determined, and it is probable that the trade receivable will be collected. These estimates affect the amount of sales revenue recognised. Revenue from long-term projects and long-term operations and maintenance agreements is recognised according to their percentage of completion when the profit on the project or agreement can be reliably determined. The percentage of completion and the profit are based on management’s estimates as to the realisation of the project or agreement. These estimates are reviewed regularly. Recognised sales revenue and costs recorded are adjusted during the project when assumptions concerning the outcome of the entire project are updated. Changes in assumptions relate to changes in the project’s or agreement’s schedule, scope of supply, technology, costs, and any other relevant factors.

Warranty provisions are recorded on the recognition of sales revenue. The provision is based on the accumulated experience of the level of warranty needed to manage future and current cost claims. Products can contain new and complex technology that can affect warranty estimates with the result that earlier recognised provisions are not always sufficient.

The Group is a defendant in several legal cases arising from its business operations. A provision for a court case is recorded when an unfavourable result is probable and the loss can be determined with reasonable certainty. The final result can differ from these estimates.

The recoverable amounts of goodwill are determined for all cash-generating units annually, or more often if there is an indication of an impairment, where its value in use is determined. The value in use is determined using estimates of future market development, such as growth and profitability, as well as other significant factors. The most important factors underlying such estimates are the net sales growth in the market area, the operating margin, the useful life of the assets, future investment needs and the discount rate. Changes in these assumptions can significantly affect the expected future cash flows.

Estimates of pension obligations regarding defined benefit plans are based on actuarial estimates of factors including future salary increases, discount rates and return on plan assets. Changes in these assumptions can significantly affect the Group’s pension obligations and pension costs.

Principles of consolidation

Subsidiaries

The consolidated financial statements include the parent company Wärtsilä Corporation and all subsidiaries in which the parent company directly or indirectly holds more than 50% of the voting rights or in which Wärtsilä is otherwise in control on the reporting date. Being in control means the power to govern the financial and operating policies of the company to obtain benefits from its activities.

Acquired and established companies are accounted for using the purchase method of accounting. Accordingly, the purchase price and the acquired company’s identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities are measured at fair value on the date of acquisition. In the acquisition of non-controlling interests, if the Group already has control, the non-controlling interest is measured either at fair value or at the non-controlling interests’ proportionate share of the identifiable net assets. The difference between the purchase price, possible equity belonging to the non-controlling interests and the acquired company’s net identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities measured at fair value is goodwill. Goodwill is tested for impairment at least annually. The purchase price includes the consideration paid, measured at fair value. The consideration does not include transaction costs, which are recognised in the statement of income. The transaction costs are expensed in the same financial period in which they occur, except the costs resulting from issued debt or equity instruments.

Any contingent consideration (additional purchase price) related to the combination of businesses is measured at fair value on the date of acquisition. It is classified either as a liability or equity. Contingent consideration classified as a liability is measured at fair value on the last day of each financial period, and the resulting loss or gain is recognised through profit or loss. Contingent consideration classified as equity is not remeasured.

For the acquisitions which occurred before 1 January 2010, the accounting principles valid at the time of the acquisition have been applied.

The acquired subsidiaries are included in the consolidated financial statements from the day the Group has control, and disposed subsidiaries until the control ends. All intragroup transactions, dividend distributions, receivables and liabilities as well as unrealised margins are eliminated in the consolidated financial statements. In the consolidated statements of income and comprehensive income, non-controlling interests have been separated from the profit and the total comprehensive income for the financial period. In the consolidated statement of financial position, non-controlling interests are shown as a separate item under equity.

Associated companies and joint ventures

Companies, in which the Group usually holds voting rights of between 20% and 50% and in which the Group has a significant influence but no control over the financial and operating policies, are consolidated as associated companies. In joint ventures, the Group has joint control with another party, established by contractual agreement.

Associated companies and joint ventures are included in the consolidated financial statements using the equity method from the date the Group’s significant influence or joint control commences until the date it ceases. The Group’s share of the associated company’s or joint venture’s profit for the financial period are shown as a separate item before the Group’s operating result, on the line Share of result of associates and joint ventures. The Group’s share of the associated company’s or joint venture’s changes recorded in other comprehensive income is recorded in the Group’s other comprehensive income. Wärtsilä’s proportion of the associated company’s or joint venture’s post-acquisition accumulated equity is included in the Group’s equity. If the Group’s share of the associated company's or joint venture's losses exceeds its interest in the company, the carrying amount is written down to zero. After this, losses are only recognised if the Group has incurred obligations from the associated company or joint venture.

Assets held for sale and discontinued operations

Non-current assets and assets and liabilities related to discontinued operations are classified as held for sale if their carrying amounts are expected to be recovered primarily through sale rather than through continuing use. Classification as held for sale requires that the following criteria are met; the sale is highly probable, the asset is available for immediate sale in its present condition subject to usual and customary terms, the management is committed to the sale, and the sale is expected to be completed within one year from the date of classification.

Prior to classification as held for sale, the assets or assets and liabilities related to a disposal group in question are measured according to the respective IFRS standards. From the date of classification, non-current assets held for sale are measured at the lower of the carrying amount and the fair value less costs to sell, and the recognition of depreciation and amortization is discontinued. A discontinued operation is a component of an entity that either has been disposed of, or is classified as held for sale, and represents a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations, is part of a single coordinated plan to dispose of a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations or is a subsidiary acquired exclusively with a view to resale.

The result from the discontinued operations is shown separately in the consolidated statement of income and the comparative figures are restated accordingly. Non-current assets held for sale are presented in the statement of financial position separately from other items. The comparative figures for the statement of financial position are not restated.

Translating the transactions in foreign currencies

The items included in the financial statements are initially recognised in the functional currency, which is defined for each group company based on its primary economic environment. The presentation currency of the consolidated financial statements is the euro, which is also the functional and presentation currency of Wärtsilä Corporation.

Foreign subsidiaries

The income and expenses for statements of income and statements of comprehensive income of foreign subsidiaries are translated into euros at the quarterly average exchange rates. Statements of financial position are translated into euros at the exchange rates prevailing at the end of the financial period. The translation of the profit for the financial period and other comprehensive income using different exchange rates in the statement of comprehensive income and the statement of financial position causes translation differences, which are recognised in equity and in other comprehensive income as change. Translation differences of foreign subsidiaries’ acquisition cost eliminations and post-acquisition profits and losses are recognised in other comprehensive income and are presented as a separate item in equity. The goodwill generated in the acquisition of foreign entities and their fair value adjustments of assets and liabilities are considered as assets and liabilities of foreign entities, which are translated into euros using the exchange rates prevailing at the end of the financial period.

Transactions in foreign currencies

Transactions denominated in a foreign currency are translated into the functional currency using the exchange rate prevailing at the dates of the transactions. Receivables and liabilities are translated at the exchange rate prevailing at the end of the financial period. Exchange rate gains and losses related to trade receivables and liabilities are reported on the applicable line in the statement of income and are included in operating result. Exchange rate differences related to financial assets and financial liabilities are reported as financial items in the statement of income, except exchange rate differences related to non-current debt that is part of the Group's net investment in a subsidiary. Those are recognised in other comprehensive income and reported in translation differences in equity.

Net sales and revenue recognition

Sales are presented net of indirect sales taxes and discounts. Sales are recognised when the significant risks and rewards connected with ownership have been transferred to the buyer. This typically means that revenue recognition occurs when a product or service is delivered to the customer in accordance with the terms of delivery.

Revenue from long-term construction contracts and long-term operating and maintenance agreements is recognised in accordance with the percentage of completion method when the outcome of the contract can be estimated reliably. The percentage of completion is usually based on the ratio of costs incurred to total estimated costs to date for long-term construction contracts. In some gas solution projects where the key value drivers are engineering, procurement and project management, and where the manufacturing is outsourced, the percentage of completion is assessed with reference to surveys of work performed. For long-term operating and maintenance agreements the percentage of completion is calculated on the basis of the proportion of the contracted services performed. When the final outcome of a long-term project cannot be reliably determined, the costs arising from the project are expensed in the same financial period in which they occur, but the revenue from the project is recorded only to the extent that the company will receive an amount corresponding to actual costs. Any losses due to projects are expensed immediately.

Employee benefits

Pension and other long-term employee benefits

Pension plans

Group companies in different countries have various pension plans in accordance with local conditions and practices. These pension plans are classified either as defined contribution or defined benefit plans. The fixed contributions to the defined contribution plans are expensed in the year to which they relate. The Group has no legal or constructive obligation to pay further contributions if the fund does not hold sufficient assets to pay employee benefits. All other plans are defined benefit plans.

Defined benefit plans are funded through contributions to pension funds or pension insurance companies. Defined benefit plans may be unfunded or wholly or partly funded. The present value of the obligation arising from the defined benefit plans is determined per each plan using actuarial techniques, the projected unit credit method. The Group recognises the defined benefit obligation net of fair value of the plan assets at the end of the financial period.

Actuarial gains and losses and other remeasurements of the net defined benefit obligation are recognised immediately in the statement of other comprehensive income. Current service cost is the present value of the post employment benefit, which is earned by the employees during the year. The Group determines the net interest expense on the net defined benefit plan by applying the discount rate used to measure the defined benefit obligation. Service cost is recognised in employee benefit expenses and the net interest in financial expenses. The defined benefit plans are calculated by qualified actuaries.

Other long-term employee benefits

In addition to defined benefit plans, Wärtsilä has other long-term employee benefits. They are presented separately from the defined benefit plans. Similarly to the accounting for a defined benefit plan, for any other long-term benefit the Group recognises a liability for the obligation net of the fair value of plan assets, if any. Changes in other long-term employee benefits are recognised in the statement of income.

Share-based payments

The company’s bonus scheme, which is fixed to share value, is measured at the fair value of the share on the reporting date and reported in the statement of income for the term-to-maturity of the bonus scheme.

Goodwill and other intangible assets

Goodwill

Goodwill is the difference between the aggregate of the acquisition-date fair value of the consideration transferred and the acquirer’s share of the company’s net identifiable assets and liabilities measured at fair value on the acquisition date. The consideration transferred is measured at fair value, including also the acquirer’s previously held equity interest.

Research and development costs

Research costs are expensed in the financial period during which they occur. Development costs are capitalised when it is probable that the development project will generate future economic benefits for the Group and when the related criteria, including commercial and technological feasibility, have been met. These projects involve the development of new or significantly improved products or production processes. Earlier expensed development costs are not capitalised.

Capitalised development costs are measured at cost less accumulated amortisations and impairment. Capitalised development costs are amortised and the cost of buildings, machinery and facilities for development depreciated on a straight-line basis over their expected useful lives, 5-10 years. Amortisations are started when the asset is finished and can be taken into use. Before that, the asset is tested for impairment annually. Grants received for research and development are reported as other operating income. Grants related to capitalised development costs are netted with the costs occurred before the capitalisation.

Other intangible assets

Other intangible assets are recorded at cost if the cost is reliably measurable and the future economic benefits for the Group are probable. Wärtsilä’s other intangible assets include patents, licenses, software, customer relations and other intellectual property rights that can be transferred to a third party. These are measured at cost, except for intangible assets identified in connection with acquisitions, which are measured at the fair value at the acquisition date. The cost of intangible assets comprises the purchase price and all costs that can be directly attributed to preparing an asset for its intended use.

Other intangible assets are amortised on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. Intangible assets, for which the time limit for the right of use is agreed, are amortised over the life of the contract. Intangible assets identified in connection with acquisitions are amortised over their delivery times or estimated useful lives.

The general guidelines for scheduled amortisation are:

  • Software 3-7 years
  • Development expenses 5-10 years
  • Other intangible assets 5-20 years

The estimated useful lives and the residual values are reviewed at least at the end of each financial year, and if they differ significantly from previous estimates, amortisation periods are adjusted accordingly. Amortisation of intangible assets is stopped when an item is classified as held for sale.

A gain or loss arising from the sale of intangible assets is recognised in other operating income or other operating expenses in the statement of income.

Property, plant and equipment

Property, plant and equipment acquired by the Group are measured in the statement of financial position at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses. The cost of an asset includes costs directly attributed to preparing an asset for its intended use. Grants received are reported as a reduction in costs. The property, plant and equipment of acquired subsidiaries are measured at their fair value at the acquisition date. The borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the asset acquisition, construction or production and to completion of the asset for its intended use or sale requiring necessarily a considerable length of time will be capitalised in the statement of financial position as part of the cost of the asset. Other than directly attributable borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they are incurred.

Subsequent expenditure is included in the cost of an asset only if the future economic benefits for the Group are probable and the costs are reliably measurable. Expenditure related to regular, extensive inspections and maintenance is treated as an investment, capitalised and depreciated during the useful life. All other expenditure such as ordinary maintenance and repairs is recognised in the statement of income as an expense as incurred.

Depreciation is based on the following estimated useful lives:

  • Buildings 10-40 years
  • Machinery and equipment 5-20 years
  • Other tangible assets 3-10 years

Depreciation is charged to the statement of income on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets. Land is not depreciated, as its useful life is considered as infinite. The estimated useful lives and the residual values are reviewed at least at the end of each financial year, and if they differ significantly from previous estimates, depreciation periods are adjusted accordingly. Depreciation of property, plant and equipment is stopped when an item is classified as held for sale.

A gain or loss arising from the sale of property, plant and equipment is recognised in other operating income or other operating expenses in the statement of income.

Impairment of intangible assets and property, plant and equipment

The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed regularly for signs of possible impairment. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated. The recoverable amount is estimated annually also for the goodwill whether or not there are signs of impairment. In order to define a possible impairment, the Group’s assets are divided up into the smallest possible cash-generating units which are mainly independent of other units and the cash flows of which are separately identifiable and to a large extent independent of the cash flows of other similar units.

An impairment loss is recorded when the carrying amount of an asset is greater than its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the higher of an asset’s fair value less costs to sell and its value in use. The value in use is based on the expected discounted future net cash flows resulting from the asset or cash-generating unit. A pre-tax rate which reflects the markets’ position on the time value of money and asset-specific risks is used as the discount rate.

An impairment loss is recognised immediately in the statement of income. In connection with the recognition of the impairment loss, the useful life of the amortisable/depreciable asset is reassessed. An earlier impairment loss recognised for an asset other than goodwill is reversed if the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount change. However, reversal of impairment shall not exceed the asset’s carrying amount less impairment loss. An impairment loss recognised for goodwill is not reversed under any circumstances.

Determination of the fair value of assets acquired through business combinations

In significant business combinations, the Group has used external advisors when estimating the fair values of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets. For property, plant and equipment, comparisons have been made of the market prices of similar assets, and the depreciation of the acquired assets due to aging, wear and other similar factors has been estimated. The fair value measurement of intangible assets is based on estimates of the future cash flows associated with the assets. The acquired identifiable intangible assets include typically technology, customer relationships, and trademarks.

Investment properties

Properties that are not used in the Group’s operating activities or that are held to earn rental income or for capital appreciation, or both, are classified as investment properties. Investment properties are presented in the statement of financial position on a separate line in non-current assets and measured at cost less accumulated depreciations and impairment. A gain or loss arising from the sale of investment properties is recognised in other operating income or other operating expenses in the statement of income.

Leases

Leases related to property, plant and equipment in which all material rewards and risks of ownership have been transferred to the Group are classified as finance leases. Assets acquired under a finance lease are recognised as property, plant and equipment at the lower of the fair value of the leased asset and the estimated present value of the underlying lease payments. The corresponding rental obligation, net of finance charge, is included in interest-bearing debt with the interest element of the finance charge being recognised in the statement of income over the lease period. Assets acquired under a finance lease are depreciated over their estimated useful lives in accordance with the same principles that apply to the Group’s other similar property, plant and equipment. The shorter alternative of the following is selected: either the useful life of the leased asset or the lease term.

Leases in which the rewards and risks of ownership have not been transferred to the Group are classified as operating leases. Rental payments under operating leases are charged in the statement of income on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

Inventories

Inventories are carried at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Costs include allocated purchasing and manufacturing overhead costs in addition to direct manufacturing costs. Inventory valuation is primarily based on the weighted average cost.

Financial assets and liabilities

Financial assets

Financial assets are classified into the following categories: financial assets at fair value through the statement of income, investments held to maturity, loans and receivables, and available-for-sale financial assets. Financial assets are classified on the basis of their purpose of use upon initial recognition.

At the end of the financial period, the Group assesses whether objective indication exists of impairment of an individual financial asset other than those measured at fair value through the statement of income. There is impairment in a financial asset if objective indication exists thereof and if it has an effect on expected future cash flows from the financial asset that can be reliably evaluated. A significant decline in a counterparty’s result, a debtor’s breach of contract, and for equity instruments, a significant or persistent decline in value below its cost, for example, can be considered as objective indication of impairment.

Financial assets at fair value through the statement of income

The financial assets at fair value through the statement of income category includes derivatives that do not qualify for hedge accounting and are not financial guarantee agreements, as well as other financial assets recognised at fair value through the statement of income, which are financial assets held for trading.

Derivatives are initially recognised at cost in the statement of financial position and are thereafter measured at their fair value at the end of each financial period. Realised and unrealised gains and losses from changes in fair values are recognised in the statement of income in the period in which they have arisen. Derivatives held for trading, as well as financial assets maturing within 12 months after the end of the financial period, are included in current assets.

Investments held to maturity

Investments held to maturity are financial assets with fixed or determinable payments that mature on a fixed date and which the Group has the positive intention and ability to hold until maturity. They are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method, less any impairment losses.

Loans and receivables

Loans and receivables are non-derivative financial assets that have fixed or determinable payments and that are not quoted on active markets. They arise when the Group provides a loan or delivers products and services directly to a debtor. Loans and receivables are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method. They are included in non-current receivables, unless they have a maturity of less than 12 months from the reporting date. Such items are classified as current receivables.

Trade receivables are recognised at their anticipated realisable value, which is the original invoiced amount less an estimated valuation allowance for impairment. Trade receivables are measured individually. Credit losses are expensed immediately when indication exists that the Group is not able to collect its trade receivables according to initial agreements. Examples of events giving rise to impairment include a debtor’s serious financial problems, a debtor’s probable bankruptcy or other financial arrangement. The Group may sell undivided interests in trade receivables on an ongoing and one-time basis to other lending institutions.

Financial assets sold under these arrangements are excluded from trade receivables in the Group’s consolidated statement of financial position at the time of payment from the acquirer, considering that substantially all risks and rewards have been transferred. If the acquirer has not settled the payment to the extent that the ownership, risk and control over the receivable have been substantially transferred then such financial assets sold are re-recognised in the consolidated statement of financial position at the end of the financial period.

Available-for-sale financial assets

Available-for-sale financial assets are non-derivative financial assets allocated to this category. They are included in non-current assets unless the Group intends to dispose of the investment within 12 months from the reporting date.

Wärtsilä’s investments in other companies are classified as available-for-sale financial assets, including investments in listed and unlisted shares. Listed shares are measured at fair value, based on their market value. Unlisted shares for which the fair value cannot be reliably measured are valued at cost less impairment.

Changes in the fair value of shares measured at fair value are recognised in other comprehensive income and reported in fair value reserve in equity with the tax impact, until the shares are disposed of or written down, at which point the accumulated fair value changes are released from equity to the statement of income.

Gains and losses on disposal and impairments of shares that are attributable to operating activities are included in operating income, while gains and losses on disposal and impairments of other shares are included in financial income and expenses.

Cash and cash equivalents

Cash comprises cash in hand, deposits held at call with banks and similar investments. Cash equivalents comprise short-term, highly liquid investments that are subject to only minor fluctuations in value. Cash equivalents have a maturity of up to three months on the date of acquisition. Credit accounts related to the Group's cash pool accounts are included in current financial liabilities.

Financial liabilities

The Group’s financial liabilities are classified either into financial liabilities recognised at amortised cost or financial liabilities recognised at fair value through the statement of income. Financial liabilities are classified as current unless the Group has the unconditional right to defer the payment of the debt to at least 12 months from the end of the financial period. Financial liabilities (or parts thereof) are only derecognised once the debt has extinguished, i.e. once the contractually specified obligation is discharged, cancelled or expires.

Financial liabilities recognised at amortised cost

The loans raised by the Group are included in financial liabilities recognised at amortised cost. They are measured at their initial recognition at fair value using the effective interest rate method. After the initial recognition, loans are measured at amortised cost. Interests on loans are expensed through the statement of income over the maturity of the debt using the effective interest rate method.

Financial liabilities recognised at fair value through the statement of income

In the Wärtsilä Group, financial liabilities recognised at fair value through the statement of income include derivatives that are not eligible for hedge accounting. Realised and unrealised gains and losses from changes in fair values of derivatives are recognised in the statement of income in the period in which they have arisen.

Derivatives and hedge accounting

Derivatives are measured at fair value. Gains and losses from fair value measurement are treated as determined by the purpose of the derivatives. The effects on results of changes in the value of derivatives that are eligible for hedge accounting and that are effective hedging instruments are presented consistently with the hedged item. Impact from ineffective hedging instruments is recognised in financial income and expenses.

For derivatives eligible for hedge accounting, the Group documents the relationship between each hedging instrument and the hedged asset upon entering into a hedging arrangement, along with the risk management objective and the strategy applied. Through this process, the hedging instrument is linked to the relevant assets and liabilities, projected business transactions or binding contracts. The Group also documents its ongoing assessment of the effectiveness of the hedge regarding the relationship between a change in the derivative’s fair value and a change in the value of the hedged cash flows or transactions.

Hedging of sales and purchases

Wärtsilä hedges its sales and purchases in foreign currencies with foreign exchange derivatives or currency options. Certain foreign exchange derivatives are eligible for hedge accounting. Changes in the fair value of derivative contracts designated to hedge future cash flows are recognised in other comprehensive income and presented in the fair value reserve in equity, provided that the hedging is effective. The ineffective portion is immediately recognised in the statement of income in the financial period. Changes in fair value due to interest rate differences are recognised in the statement of income. Any gain or loss in the fair value reserve accumulated through other comprehensive income is reported as an adjustment to net sales or material and services in the same period as any transactions relating to the hedged obligations or estimates. Currency forwards are measured at forward rates at the end of the financial period and currency options at their market value at the end of the financial period.

Hedges of net investments in foreign operations (equity hedging)

Wärtsilä decided to discontinue hedging the net investments in its foreign subsidiaries and joint ventures in June 2012. Prior to that, the changes in the fair values of instruments determined as equity hedging were recognised in other comprehensive income.

Derivatives not included in hedge accounting

For derivatives not included in hedge accounting, changes in fair value are immediately recognised in financial income or expenses in the statement of income. For example, interest rate swap hedges belong to this group. The fair value of interest rate swaps is calculated by discounting the future cash flows.

Fair value hierarchy

Financial instruments measured at fair value are classified according to the following fair value hierarchy: instruments measured using quoted prices in active markets (level 1), instruments measured using inputs other than quoted prices included in level 1 observable either directly or indirectly (level 2), and instruments measured using inputs that are not based on observable market data (level 3). Financial instruments measured at fair value include financial assets and liabilities at fair value through the statement of income and available-for-sale financial assets.

Provisions and contingent liabilities

Provisions are recognised in the statement of financial position when the Group has a present legal or constructive obligation as a result of a past event, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Provisions can arise, for example, from warranties, environmental risks, litigation, foreseeable losses on projects and restructuring costs. The amount to be recognised as provisions corresponds to the management’s best estimate of the expenses that will be necessary to meet the existing obligation at the end of the financial period.

Estimated future warranty costs relating to products delivered are recorded as provisions. The amount of future warranty costs is based on accumulated experience.

Provisions for restructuring costs are made once the restructuring plan has been approved and the implementation started or the personnel concerned have been informed of the terms. The plan must indicate which activities and personnel will be affected and the timing and cost of implementation.

Contingent liabilities are possible obligations resulting from previous events, the existence of which will only be ascertained once the uncertain event that is beyond the Group’s control materialises. Existing obligations that are not likely to require the fulfilment of a payment obligation or the amount of which cannot be reliably determined are also considered contingent liabilities. Contingent liabilities are presented in the notes.

Income taxes

The statement of income includes taxes on the Group’s consolidated taxable income for the financial period in accordance with local tax regulations, tax adjustments for previous financial periods and changes in deferred taxes. Tax effects related to transactions recognised through the statement of income and other events are recognised in the statement of income. Tax effects related to transactions or other events to be presented as components of other comprehensive income or directly in equity are also recognised, respectively, in other comprehensive income or directly in equity.

Deferred tax liabilities and assets are calculated on temporary differences arising from the difference between the tax basis of assets and liabilities and the carrying values using the enacted tax rates at the end of the financial period. The statement of financial position includes deferred tax liabilities in their entirety and deferred tax assets at their estimated probable amount.

Dividends

The dividend proposed by the Board of Directors is deducted from distributable equity when approved by the company’s Annual General Meeting.

Adoption of new and updated IFRS standards

In 2017, the Group will adopt the following new and amended standards issued by the IASB.

New IFRS 9 Financial Instruments replaces the existing guidance in IAS 39 Financial Instruments - Recognition and Measurement. IFRS 9 includes revised guidance on the classification and measurement of financial instruments, including new general hedge accounting requirements and a new expected credit loss model for calculating impairment on financial assets. It also carries forward the guidance on recognition and derecognition of financial instruments from IAS 39.

The Group has assessed the impact of IFRS 9 and foresees some changes in the hedging processes and presentation. The new model aligns the accounting treatment with risk management activities and allows net hedging, from which the gains or losses will be presented on a separate line in the consolidated statement of income. Regarding impairment of financial assets, the change mainly concerns trade receivables where the credit losses will be recognised based on the expected lifetime credit losses. The Group estimates the restatement impact to equity and trade receivables to remain insignificant. Other figures on the comparative period will not be restated.

Amendments to IAS 7 Statement of Cash Flows* - Disclosure Initiative clarify IAS 7 to improve information provided to users of financial statements about an entity's financing activities e.g. by providing a reconciliation between the opening and closing balances in the statement of financial position for liabilities arising from financing activities (separately from changes in other assets and liabilities). The amendments will have an impact on the notes of the consolidated financial statements.

Amendments to IAS 12 Income Taxes* - Recognition of Deferred Tax Assets for Unrealised Losses clarify the requirements on recognition of deferred tax assets for debt instruments measured at fair value. The amendments will have no significant impact on consolidated financial statements.

The following new and amended standards and interpretations already issued by the IASB will be adopted in 2018 or later, depending on the effective date.

New IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers (effective for financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2018): IFRS 15 establishes a comprehensive framework for determining whether, how much and when revenue is recognised. It replaces existing revenue guidance, including IAS 18 Revenue, and IAS 11 Construction Contracts. Under IFRS 15 an entity shall recognise revenue in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services.

The Group has assessed the impacts of IFRS 15 and foresees provisional changes in the revenue recognition method in two business lines. These are long-term service and maintenance agreements and oil and gas business related construction contracts.

In long-term service and maintenance agreements, the customer value is created over time during the contract period. Currently, the percentage of completion is calculated on the basis of the proportion of the contracted services performed. In accordance with IFRS 15, the revenue will be recognised over time based on costs incurred. Due to the standard maintenance schedules this typically delays the revenue recognition in a contract. However, the impact on Group net sales is in large extend mitigated with wide portfolio of agreements in different stages of lifetime.

The key value drivers in oil and gas business construction contracts are engineering, procurement, and project management, and the manufacturing is usually outsourced. The revenue will be recognised over time based on project progress, measured with costs incurred. Typically this delays the revenue recognition of a project significantly compared to the current method, which is measuring the progress based on surveys of work performed. Also in oil and gas business construction contracts the wide portfolio of projects in different stages should mitigate the impact on Group net sales.

The two business lines together represent, depending on the year, approximately 10-15% of the group’s net sales. The estimated combined restatement impact in equity is approximately EUR -10 million.

Amendments to IFRS 2 Share-based Payment* - Clarification and Measurement of Share-based Payment Transactions (effective for financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2018). The amendments are intended to eliminate the diversity in the classification and measurement of particular share-based payment transactions (accounting for cash-settled share-based payment transactions that include a performance condition, share-based payments in which the manner of settlement is contingent on future events, share-based payments settled net of tax withholdings and modification of share-based payment transactions from cash-settled to equity-settled). The amendments will have no impact on consolidated financial statements.

Amendments to IFRS 4 Insurance Contracts* - Applying IFRS 9 Financial Instruments with IFRS 4 Insurance Contracts (effective for financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2018): Applying IFRS 9 Financial Instruments with IFRS 4. The amendments bring certainty to insurers on whether, and how, they should apply IFRS 9 before they apply the forthcoming insurance contracts standard. The amendments will have no impact on consolidated financial statements.

New IFRS 16 Leases* (effective for financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2019): IFRS 16 changes the accounting for operating leases by requiring companies to recognise lease assets and lease liabilities in the balance sheet, initially measured at the present value of unavoidable future lease payments, and to depreciate those assets and interest on lease liabilities in the income statement over the lease term. Whether a contract contains a lease is determined on the basis of whether the customer has the right to control the use of an identified asset for a period of time. When adapting IFRS 16, the portion of the lease payments currently included in operating expenses in the consolidated statement of income will be transferred to amortisations and depreciations and the interest portion to financial expenses. Also balance sheet totals will change, leading to some changes in key figures. The Group is assessing the impact of IFRS 16.

* Not yet endorsed for use by the European Union as of 31 December 2016.

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