Accounting principles for the consolidated financial statements
Wärtsilä Corporation is a Finnish listed company organised under the laws of Finland and domiciled in Helsinki. The address of its registered office is Hiililaiturinkuja 2, 00180 Helsinki. Wärtsilä Corporation is the ultimate parent company in the Wärtsilä Group.
Wärtsilä is a global leader in smart technologies and complete lifecycle solutions for the marine and energy markets. By emphasising sustainable innovation, total efficiency, and data analytics, Wärtsilä maximises the environmental and economic performance of the vessels and power plants of its customers.
In 2018, Wärtsilä’s net sales totalled EUR 5.2 billion with approximately 19,000 employees. The company has operations in over 200 locations in more than 80 countries around the world. Wärtsilä is listed on Nasdaq Helsinki.
These consolidated financial statements were authorised for release by the Board of Directors of Wärtsilä Corporation on 30 January 2019, after which, in accordance with the Finnish Corporate Act, the shareholders have a right to approve or reject the financial statements in the Annual General Meeting. The Annual General Meeting also has a possibility to decide upon changes in the financial statements.
Basis of preparation
The consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) by applying IAS and IFRS standards and their SIC and IFRIC interpretations, which were in force on 31 December 2018. International Financial Reporting Standards refer to the standards, and their interpretations, approved for application in the EU in accordance with the procedures stipulated in the EU’s regulation (EC) No. 1606/2002 and embodied in Finnish accounting legislation and the statutes enacted under it. The notes to the consolidated financial statements also comply with the Finnish accounting and corporate legislation.
Reporting is based on the historical cost convention. Exceptions are the financial assets and liabilities at fair value through the statement of income, hedged items under fair value hedging, and the cash-settled share-based payment transactions which are measured at fair value. The figures are in millions of euros except notes 30. Related party disclosures and 32. Auditors´fees and services, which are presented in thousands of euros.
In 2018, the Group adopted the following new and amended standards issued by the IASB.
IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers and related amendments to the standard. The standard establishes a new five-step model that will apply to revenue arising from contracts with customers. IFRS 15 is based on the principle that revenue is recognised when control of a good or service transfers to a customer. In accordance with the standard, revenue is recognised as control is passed either over time or at a point in time. The Group has adopted the new standard on the required effective date using the full retrospective method. The disclosures related to revenue are presented according to the new standard.
Adoption of IFRS 15 led to changes in revenue recognition, long-term service and maintenance agreements, and oil and gas business related construction contracts. In long-term service and maintenance agreements, the revenue changed from an output method (percentage of completion based on the proportion of the contracted services performed) to input method (percentage of completion based on cost incurred). In construction contracts related to gas solutions, the revenue recognition method changed from an output method (percentage of completion based on the progress measured by surveys of work performed) to an input method (percentage of completion based on cost incurred). The combined restatement impact in equity was EUR -13 million. The restatement impact on 2017 earnings per share was -0.04 EUR.
As IFRS 15 was adopted using the full retrospective method, the impact of the restatement is presented in the below table also for the opening balance of the financial period 2017:
|Condensed statement of financial position|
|Intangible assets||1 434||1 577||1 747|
|Property, plant and equipment||405||349||324|
|Investments in associates and joint ventures||84||83||66|
|Deferred tax assets||144||131||129|
|Total non-current assets||2 119||2 285||2 369|
|Inventories||1 042||1 051||1 165|
|Other receivables||1 775||1 933||2 038|
|Cash and cash equivalents||472||379||487|
|Total current assets||3 289||3 363||3 690|
|Total assets||5 408||5 648||6 059|
|Other equity||1 936||2 016||2 082|
|Total equity attributable to equity holders of the parent company||2 272||2 352||2 418|
|Total equity||2 305||2 376||2 432|
|Deferred tax liabilities||93||102||99|
|Total non-current liabilities||884||889||1 092|
|Other liabilities||2 111||2 281||2 461|
|Total current liabilities||2 219||2 383||2 535|
|Total liabilities||3 103||3 272||3 627|
|Total equity and liabilities||5 408||5 648||6 059|
Amendments to IFRS 2 Share-based Payment - Clarification and Measurement of Share-based Payment Transactions (effective for financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2018). These amendments are intended to eliminate the diversity in the classification and measurement of particular share-based payment transactions (accounting for cash-settled share-based payment transactions that include a performance condition, share-based payments in which the manner of settlement is contingent on future events, share-based payments settled net of tax withholdings, and modification of share-based payment transactions from cash-settled to equity-settled). The amendments had no impact on the consolidated financial statements.
Amendments to IFRS 4 Insurance Contracts - Applying IFRS 9 Financial Instruments with IFRS 4 Insurance Contracts (effective for financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2018): Applying IFRS 9 Financial Instruments with IFRS 4. The amendments bring certainty to insurers on whether, and how, they should apply IFRS 9 before they apply the forthcoming insurance contracts standard. The amendments had no impact on the consolidated financial statements.
IFRIC 22 Foreign Currency Transactions and Advance Consideration (effective for financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2018). This interpretation considers how to determine the date of the transaction when applying the standard on foreign currency transactions IAS 21. The guidance aims to reduce diversity in practice. The interpretation had no impact on the consolidated financial statements.
Management judgement and use of estimates
The preparation of the financial statements in accordance with the IFRS requires management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the valuation of the reported assets and liabilities and other information, such as contingent assets and liabilities and the recognition of income and expenses in the statement of income. Although these estimates and assumptions are based on management’s best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results may differ from the estimates.
For Wärtsilä, the most significant judgements, estimates, and assumptions made by the management relate to revenue recognition, especially to project estimates for long-term projects and agreements, assumptions used in impairment testing, the valuation of accounts receivables and inventories, estimates and assumptions used in defined pension benefit obligations, recognition of warranty provisions and provisions for legal cases, and uncertain tax positions.
Assessing whether or not it is probable that the consideration from contracts with customers will be collected requires judgement, and might impact the timing and amount of revenue recognition.
Revenue from certain projects and long-term agreements is recognised over time according to the input method, based on their percentage of completion when the profit on the project or agreement can be reliably determined. The percentage of completion and the profit are based on management’s estimates, which require significant judgement concerning the stage of completion, cost to complete, and time of completion. These estimates are reviewed regularly. Recognised revenue and costs recorded are adjusted during the project when assumptions concerning the outcome of the entire project are updated. Changes in assumptions relate to changes in the project’s or agreement’s schedule, scope of supply, technology, costs, and any other relevant factors.
Establishing whether distinct goods or services are considered as being separate performance obligations requires judgement, and might impact the timing and amount of revenue recognition.
Project business contracts usually involve elements of variable consideration. At each reporting date, management reassesses the transaction price, which requires significant judgement as it affects the timing of the revenue recognition. The valuation of accounts receivables also includes estimates mainly concerning the recoverability of receivables.
Determining whether different contracts with the same client are accounted for as one agreement involves the use of judgement, as it requires us to assess whether the contracts are negotiated together or linked in any other way. The timing and amount of revenue recognition can vary depending on whether two contracts are accounted for separately, or as one single arrangement.
Warranty provisions are recorded on the recognition of revenue. The provision is based on the accumulated experience of the level of warranty needed to manage future and current cost claims. Products can contain new and complex technology that can affect warranty estimates with the result that earlier recognised provisions are not always sufficient.
Accounting for the business combinations may require estimates of the fair value of acquired assets and the expected amount of realised contingent consideration. In addition, the recoverable amounts of goodwill are determined for all cash-generating units annually, or more often if there is an indication of an impairment, where its value in use is determined. The value in use is determined using estimates of future market development, such as growth and profitability, as well as other significant factors. The most important factors underlying such estimates are the net sales growth in the market area, the operating margin, the useful life of the assets, future investment needs, and the discount rate. Changes in these assumptions can significantly affect the expected future cash flows.
The Group is a defendant in several legal cases arising from its business operations. A provision for a court case is recorded when an unfavourable result is probable, and the loss can be determined with reasonable certainty. The final result can differ from these estimates.
Estimates of tax liabilities and receivables relate mainly to the expected result of ongoing tax audits, and recognition of deferred tax receivables from tax losses.
Estimates of pension obligations regarding defined benefit plans are based on actuarial estimates of factors including future salary increases, discount rates, and return on plan assets. Changes in these assumptions can significantly affect the Group’s pension obligations and pension costs.
Principles of consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the parent company Wärtsilä Corporation and all subsidiaries over which the Group has control. The Group controls an entity when the Group is exposed to, or has rights to, variable returns from its involvement with the entity and has the ability to affect those returns through its power to direct the activities of the entity.
Acquired and established companies are accounted for using the acquisition method. Accordingly, the purchase price and the acquired company’s identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities are measured at fair value on the date of acquisition. In the acquisition of additional interest, where the Group already has control, the non-controlling interest is measured either at fair value or at the non-controlling interests’ proportionate share of the identifiable net assets. The difference between the purchase price, possible equity belonging to the non-controlling interests and the acquired company’s net identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities measured at fair value is goodwill. Goodwill is tested for impairment at least annually. The purchase price includes the consideration paid, measured at fair value. The consideration does not include transaction costs, which are recognised in the statement of income. The transaction costs are expensed in the same financial period in which they occur, except the costs resulting from issued debt or equity instruments.
Any contingent consideration (additional purchase price) related to the combination of businesses is measured at fair value on the date of acquisition. It is classified either as a liability or equity. Contingent consideration classified as a liability is measured at fair value on the last day of each financial period, and the resulting loss or gain is recognised through the statement of income. Contingent consideration classified as equity is not remeasured.
For acquisitions which occurred before 1 January 2010, the accounting principles valid at the time of the acquisition have been applied.
The acquired subsidiaries are included in the consolidated financial statements from the day the Group has control, and disposed subsidiaries until the control ends. All intragroup transactions, dividend distributions, receivables and liabilities, as well as unrealised margins, are eliminated in the consolidated financial statements. In the consolidated statements of income and comprehensive income, non-controlling interests have been separated from the profit and the total comprehensive income for the financial period. In the consolidated statement of financial position, non-controlling interests are shown as a separate item under equity.
Associated companies and joint ventures
Associates are all entities over which the Group has significant influence but not control or joint control. This is generally the case where the Group holds between 20% and 50% of the voting rights.
A joint venture is a joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the arrangement have rights to the net asset of the joint venture. Joint control is established by contractual agreement.
Associated companies and joint ventures are included in the consolidated financial statements using the equity method from the date the Group’s significant influence or joint control commences until the date it ceases. Investments in associates are initially recorded at cost, and the carrying amount is increased or decreased according to the Group´s share of changes in the net assets of the associate after the date of the acquisition. The Group’s share of the associated company’s or joint venture’s profit for the financial period are shown as a separate item before the Group’s operating result, on the line Share of result of associates and joint ventures. The Group’s share of the associated company’s or joint venture’s changes recorded in other comprehensive income is recorded in the Group’s other comprehensive income. Wärtsilä’s proportion of the associated company’s or joint venture’s post-acquisition accumulated equity is included in the Group’s equity. If the Group’s share of the associated company's or joint venture's losses exceeds its interest in the company, the carrying amount is written down to zero. After this, losses are only recognised if the Group has incurred obligations from the associated company or joint venture.
The accumulated exchange rate differences arising from the consolidation of associated companies and joint ventures, which are recorded in equity, are recognised in the statement of income as part of the gain or loss when change in ownership occurs.
Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations
Non-current assets and assets and liabilities related to discontinued operations are classified as held for sale if their carrying amounts are expected to be recovered primarily through sale rather than through continuing use. Classification as held for sale requires that the following criteria are met; the sale is highly probable, the asset is available for immediate sale in its present condition subject to usual and customary terms, the management is committed to the sale, and the sale is expected to be completed within one year from the date of classification.
Prior to classification as held for sale, the assets or assets and liabilities related to a disposal group in question are measured according to the respective IFRS standards. From the date of classification, non-current assets held for sale are measured at the lower of the carrying amount and the fair value less costs to sell, and the recognition of depreciation and amortization is discontinued. A discontinued operation is a component of an entity that either has been disposed of, or is classified as held for sale, and represents a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations, is part of a single coordinated plan to dispose of a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations, or is a subsidiary acquired exclusively with a view to resale.
The result from the discontinued operations is shown separately in the consolidated statement of income and the comparison figures are restated accordingly. Non-current assets held for sale are presented in the statement of financial position separately from other items. The comparison figures for the statement of financial position are not restated.
Translating the transactions in foreign currencies
The items included in the financial statements are initially recognised in the functional currency, which is defined for each group company based on its primary economic environment. The presentation currency of the consolidated financial statements is the euro, which is also the functional and presentation currency of Wärtsilä Corporation.
The income and expenses for statements of income and statements of comprehensive income of foreign subsidiaries are translated into euros at the quarterly average exchange rates. Statements of financial position are translated into euros at the exchange rates prevailing at the end of the financial period. The translation of the profit for the financial period and other comprehensive income using different exchange rates in the statement of comprehensive income and the statement of financial position causes translation differences, which are recognised in equity and in other comprehensive income as change. Translation differences of foreign subsidiaries’ acquisition cost eliminations and post-acquisition profits and losses are recognised in other comprehensive income and are presented as a separate item in equity. The goodwill generated in the acquisition of foreign entities and their fair value adjustments of assets and liabilities are considered as assets and liabilities of foreign entities, which are translated into euros using the exchange rates prevailing at the end of the financial period. When a foreign subsidiary is sold, the accumulated exchange rate differences recorded in the equity related to the subsidiary are recognised in the statement of income as a part of the gain or loss on sale.
Transactions and balances in foreign currencies
Transactions denominated in a foreign currency are translated into the functional currency using the exchange rate prevailing at the dates of the transactions. Receivables and liabilities are translated at the exchange rate prevailing at the end of the financial period. Exchange rate gains and losses related to trade receivables and liabilities are reported on the applicable line in the statement of income and are included in the operating result. Exchange rate differences related to financial assets and financial liabilities are reported as financial items in the statement of income, except exchange rate differences related to non-current debt that is part of the Group's net investment in a subsidiary. Those are recognised in other comprehensive income and reported as translation differences in equity.
Net sales and revenue recognition
Revenue is presented net of indirect sales taxes, penalties and discounts. Revenue is recognised when control of the goods or services is transferred to the customer at an amount that reflects the consideration to which the Group expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods and services. The transaction price may include variable considerations, such as penalties, liquidated damages, and performance bonuses. Revenue recognised by the reporting date corresponds to the benefit of the service provided by Wärtsilä to the customer.
Revenue from contracts with customers is derived from four main revenue types.
Product sales consist of sales of spare parts and standard equipment for which the revenue is recognised at a point in time when the control of the products has transferred to the customer, in general upon delivery of the goods. Product sale contracts generally include one performance obligation.
Goods and services -types of revenue involve short-term field service jobs, which include the delivery of a combination of service and equipment. The revenue is recognised at a point in time when the service is rendered. Goods and service -type contracts generally include one performance obligation.
Projects contain short- and long-term projects. Depending on the contract terms and the duration of the project, the revenue is recognised at a point in time or over time. Revenue related to long-term projects, such as gas solutions construction contracts, integrated solutions projects, ship design, and energy solutions turnkey contracts, is recognised over time. Revenue for tailor-made equipment delivery projects is recognised at a point in time. Project contracts generally represent one performance obligation, but can under certain circumstances contain multiple performance obligations in the Marine business when a contract contains multiple units of delivery.
Long-term agreements contain long-term operating and maintenance agreements for which the revenue is recognised over time. The contract included in this revenue type generally contain one performance obligation per installation.
Contracts with customers often include warranties in line with Wärtsilä’s General terms and conditions, which are regarded as part of the promise to the customer. Extended warranties or warranties purchased as an option are identified as separate performance obligations.
Revenue recognised over time is measured in accordance with the input method (percentage of completion method based on costs incurred) when the outcome of the contract can be estimated reliably. When the outcome cannot be reliably determined, the costs arising are expensed in the same financial period in which they occur, but the revenue is recorded only to the extent that the company will receive an amount corresponding to actual costs. Any losses are expensed immediately. If revenue for goods and services is recognised at a point in time, it is when control is transferred to the customer. The transfer of control is based mainly on transferring risks and rewards according to the delivery terms.
In case there are multiple contracts entered into with a same client at near the same time, the combination of the contracts is evaluated. Typically, Wärtsilä does not have combined contracts.
The Group applies the practical expedient according to IFRS 15.63 concerning significant financing components arising from contracts with customers. In case the lead time between the payments specified in the contract and the corresponding transferral of the promised good or service to the customer is one year or less, no adjustment is made for the effect of a possible significant financing component. Wärtsilä has no customer contracts that would include significant financing components not covered by the practical expedient.
The Group also applies the practical expedient stated in IFRS 15.94 according to which an entity can recognise the incremental costs of obtaining a contract as an expense when incurred if the amortisation period of the asset that the entity would have recognised is one year or less. Wärtsilä has not incurred any costs of obtaining a contract to be recognised as an asset.
Pension and other long-term employee benefits
Group companies in different countries have various pension plans in accordance with local conditions and practices. These pension plans are classified either as defined contribution or defined benefit plans. The fixed contributions to the defined contribution plans are expensed in the year to which they relate. The Group has no legal or constructive obligation to pay further contributions if the fund does not hold sufficient assets to pay employee benefits. All other plans are defined benefit plans.
Defined benefit plans are funded through contributions to pension funds or pension insurance companies. Defined benefit plans may be unfunded or wholly or partly funded. The present value of the obligation arising from the defined benefit plans is determined per each plan using actuarial techniques, the projected unit credit method. The Group recognises the defined benefit obligation net of fair value of the plan assets at the end of the financial period.
Actuarial gains and losses and other remeasurements of the net defined benefit obligation are recognised immediately in the statement of other comprehensive income. Current service cost is the present value of the post employment benefit, which is earned by the employees during the year. The Group determines the net interest expense on the net defined benefit plan by applying the discount rate used to measure the defined benefit obligation. Service cost is recognised in employee benefit expenses and the net interest in financial expenses. The defined benefit plans are calculated by qualified actuaries.
Other long-term employee benefits
In addition to defined benefit plans, Wärtsilä has other long-term employee benefits. They are presented separately from the defined benefit plans. Similarly to the accounting for a defined benefit plan, for any other long-term benefit the Group recognises a liability for the obligation net of the fair value of plan assets, if any. Changes in other long-term employee benefits are recognised in the consolidated statement of income.
The company’s bonus scheme, which is tied to the price development of the company’s share during a pre-determined timeframe, is measured at the fair value of the share on the reporting date and reported in the statement of income for the term-to-maturity of the bonus scheme. An upper limit is set for the bonus. When a bonus scheme ends and the employment requirement is fulfilled, the bonus is settled in cash.
Goodwill and other intangible assets
Goodwill is the difference between the aggregate of the acquisition-date fair value of the consideration transferred and the acquirer’s share of the company’s net identifiable assets and liabilities measured at fair value on the acquisition date. The consideration transferred is measured at fair value, including also the acquirer’s previously held equity interest.
Research and development costs
Research costs are expensed in the financial period during which they occur. Development costs are capitalised when it is probable that the development project will generate future economic benefits for the Group and when the related criteria, including commercial and technological feasibility, have been met. These projects involve the development of new or significantly improved products or production processes. Earlier expensed development costs are not capitalised.
Capitalised development costs are measured at cost less accumulated amortisations and impairment. Capitalised development costs are amortised and the cost of buildings, machinery and facilities for development depreciated on a straight-line basis over their expected useful lives, 5-10 years. Amortisations are started when the asset is finished and can be taken into use. Before that, the asset is tested for impairment annually. Grants received for research and development are reported as other operating income. Grants related to capitalised development costs are netted with the costs occurred before the capitalisation.
Other intangible assets
Other intangible assets are recorded at cost if the cost is reliably measurable and the future economic benefits for the Group are probable. Wärtsilä’s other intangible assets include patents, licenses, software, customer relations, and other intellectual property rights that can be transferred to a third party. These are measured at cost, except for intangible assets identified in connection with acquisitions, which are measured at the fair value at the acquisition date. The cost of intangible assets comprises the purchase price and all costs that can be directly attributed to preparing an asset for its intended use.
Other intangible assets are amortised on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. Intangible assets, for which the time limit for the right of use is agreed, are amortised over the life of the contract. Intangible assets identified in connection with acquisitions are amortised over their delivery times or estimated useful lives.
The general guidelines for scheduled amortisation are:
- Software 3-7 years
- Development expenses 5-10 years
- Other intangible assets 5-20 years
The estimated useful lives and the residual values are reviewed at least at the end of each financial period, and if they differ significantly from previous estimates, amortisation periods are adjusted accordingly. Amortisation of intangible assets is stopped when an item is classified as held for sale.
A gain or loss arising from the sale of intangible assets is recognised in other operating income or other operating expenses in the statement of income.
Property, plant and equipment
Property, plant and equipment acquired by the Group are measured in the statement of financial position at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses. The cost of an asset includes costs directly attributed to preparing an asset for its intended use. Grants received are reported as a reduction in costs. The property, plant and equipment of acquired subsidiaries are measured at their fair value at the acquisition date. The borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the asset acquisition, construction or production and to completion of the asset for its intended use or sale requiring necessarily a considerable length of time will be capitalised in the statement of financial position as part of the cost of the asset. Other than directly attributable borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they are incurred.
Subsequent expenditure is included in the cost of an asset only if the future economic benefits for the Group are probable and the costs are reliably measurable. Expenditure related to regular, extensive inspections and maintenance is treated as an investment, capitalised and depreciated during the useful life. All other expenditure such as ordinary maintenance and repairs is recognised in the statement of income as an expense as incurred.
Depreciation is based on the following estimated useful lives:
- Buildings 10-40 years
- Machinery and equipment 5-20 years
- Other tangible assets 3-10 years
Depreciation is expensed on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets. Land is not depreciated, as its useful life is considered as infinite. The estimated useful lives and the residual values are reviewed at least at the end of each financial period, and if they differ significantly from previous estimates, depreciation periods are adjusted accordingly. Depreciation of property, plant and equipment is stopped when an item is classified as held for sale.
A gain or loss arising from the sale of property, plant and equipment is recognised in other operating income or other operating expenses in the statement of income.
Impairment of intangible assets and property, plant and equipment
The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed regularly for signs of possible impairment. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated. The recoverable amount is estimated annually also for the goodwill whether or not there are signs of impairment. In order to define a possible impairment, the Group’s assets are divided up into the smallest possible cash-generating units which are mainly independent of other units and the cash flows of which are separately identifiable and to a large extent independent of the cash flows of other similar units.
An impairment loss is recorded when the carrying amount of an asset is greater than its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the higher of an asset’s fair value less costs to sell and its value in use. The value in use is based on the expected discounted future net cash flows resulting from the asset or cash-generating unit. A pre-tax rate which reflects the markets’ position on the time value of money and asset-specific risks is used as the discount rate.
An impairment loss is recognised immediately in other operating expenses in the statement of income. In connection with the recognition of the impairment loss, the useful life of the amortisable/depreciable asset is reassessed. An earlier impairment loss recognised for an asset other than goodwill is reversed if the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount change. However, reversal of impairment shall not exceed the asset’s carrying amount less impairment loss. An impairment loss recognised for goodwill is not reversed under any circumstances.
Determination of the fair value of assets acquired through business combinations
In significant business combinations, the Group has used external advisors when estimating the fair values of property, plant and equipment, and intangible assets. For property, plant and equipment, comparisons have been made of the market prices of similar assets, and the depreciation of the acquired assets due to aging, wear and other similar factors has been estimated. The fair value measurement of intangible assets is based on estimates of the future cash flows associated with the assets. The acquired identifiable intangible assets include typically technology, customer relationships, and trademarks.
Properties that are not used in the Group’s operating activities or that are held to earn rental income or for capital appreciation, or both, are classified as investment properties. Investment properties are presented in the statement of financial position on a separate line in non-current assets and measured at cost less accumulated depreciations and impairment. A gain or loss arising from the sale of investment properties is recognised in other operating income or other operating expenses in the statement of income.
Leases related to property, plant and equipment in which all material rewards and risks of ownership have been transferred to the Group are classified as finance leases. Assets acquired under a finance lease are recognised as property, plant and equipment at the lower of the fair value of the leased asset and the estimated present value of the underlying lease payments. The corresponding rental obligation, net of finance charge, is included in interest-bearing debt with the interest element of the finance charge being recognised in the statement of income over the lease period. Assets acquired under a finance lease are depreciated over their estimated useful lives in accordance with the same principles that apply to the Group’s other similar property, plant and equipment. The shorter alternative of the following is selected: either the useful life of the leased asset or the lease term.
Leases in which the rewards and risks of ownership have not been transferred to the Group are classified as operating leases. Rental payments under operating leases are expensed on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
Inventories are carried at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Costs include allocated purchasing and manufacturing overhead costs in addition to direct manufacturing costs. Inventory valuation is primarily based on the weighted average cost.
Financial assets and liabilities
Financial assets are classified, at initial recognition, as subsequently measured according to the following categories: financial assets measured at amortised cost, financial assets at fair value through the statement of income and financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income. Financial assets are classified according to their cash flow characteristics and the business model they are managed in and accounted for at settlement date.
Financial assets at amortised cost
The Group’s financial assets at amortised cost includes trade receivables, other receivables and investments in commercial papers that are recognised at their anticipated realisable value, which is the original invoiced amount less an estimated valuation allowance for impairment. The Group assesses possible increase in the credit risk for financial assets measured at amortised cost at the end of each reporting period individually. The methodology applied depends on whether there has been a significant increase in credit risk. The loss allowance is estimated at an amount equal to 12-month expected credit losses at the current reporting date, if there has not been significant increase in credit risk.
For trade receivables and receivables from revenue recognition in accordance with percentage of completion method, simplified approach is used and the loss allowance is measured at the estimate of the lifetime expected credit losses. Receivables from revenue recognition in accordance with percentage of completion method should be covered with advance payments collected from customers so recognising credit losses based on the lifetime expected loss amounts mainly concerns trade receivables. Examples of events giving rise to impairment include a debtor’s serious financial problems, a debtor’s probable bankruptcy or other financial arrangement.
The Group may sell undivided interests in trade receivables on an ongoing and one-time basis to other lending institutions. Financial assets sold under these arrangements are excluded from trade receivables in the Group’s consolidated statement of financial position at the time of payment from acquirer, considering that substantially all risks and rewards have been transferred. If acquirer has not settled the payment to the extent that the ownership, risk and control over the receivable have been substantially transferred then such financial assets sold are re-recognised in the consolidated statement of financial position at the end of the reporting period.
Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash in hand, deposits held at call with banks, and other short-term cash investments. Cash in hand and deposits held at call are presented at amortised cost. Other short-term cash investments are mainly measured at fair value, except for commercial paper investments that are presented at amortised cost. Credit accounts related to Group cash pool accounts are included in current financial liabilities.
Financial assets at fair value through the statement of income
Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss include interest-bearing investments, derivatives not included in hedge accounting, other financial investments and cash.
Interest-bearing investments are measured at fair value through the statement of income and they include loans and receivables, which are non-derivative financial assets that have fixed or determinable payments and that are not quoted on active markets. They arise when the Group provides a loan or delivers products and services directly to a debtor. They are included in non-current receivables, unless they have a maturity of less than 12 months from the reporting date. Such items are classified as current receivables.
Other financial investments include Wärtsilä’s investments in other companies (both listed and unlisted shares) and they are classified as financial assets at fair value through the statement of income. The fair value for listed shares is based on their market value. Gains and losses from fair valuation and disposal and impairments of shares that are attributable to operating activities are included in operating income, while gains and losses from fair valuation and disposal and impairments of other shares are included in financial income and expenses.
The category includes also derivatives that do not qualify for hedge accounting and are not financial guarantee agreements, non-derivative financial assets, cash and cash equivalents as well as other financial assets recognised at fair value through the statement of income, which are financial assets held for trading.
Derivatives are initially recognised at cost in the statement of financial position and are thereafter measured at their fair value at the end of each reporting period. Realised and unrealised gains and losses from changes in fair values are recognised in the statement of income in the period in which they have arisen. Derivatives held for trading, as well as financial assets maturing within 12 months after the end of financial period, are included in current assets. Non-derivative financial assets are included in non-current assets unless the Group intends to dispose of the investment within 12 months from the reporting date.
Cash comprise cash in hand, deposits held at call with banks and similar investments. Cash equivalents comprise short-term highly liquid investments that are subject to only minor fluctuations in value. Cash equivalents have a maturity of up to three months on the date of acquisition. Credit accounts related to Group cash pool accounts are included in current financial liabilities.
Except for commercial paper investments that are presented at amortised cost, other short-term cash investments are recognised at fair value. These are short-term highly liquid investments that are subject to only minor fluctuations in value. Other short-term cash investments have a maturity of up to three months on the date of acquisition.
Financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income
Financial assets recognised at fair value through other comprehensive income include derivates eligible for hedge accounting.
Derivatives are measured at fair value and gains and losses from fair value measurement are treated as determined by the purpose of the derivatives. The effects on results of changes in the value of derivatives that are eligible for hedge accounting and that are effective hedging instruments are presented consistent with the hedged item.
Derivatives eligible for hedge accounting are classified as financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income. For derivatives included in hedge accounting, the Group documents the relationship between each hedging instrument and the hedged asset upon entering into a hedging arrangement, along with the risk management objective and the strategy applied. Through this process, the hedging instrument is linked to the relevant assets and liabilities, projected business transactions or binding contracts. The Group also documents its ongoing assessment of the effectiveness of the hedge as regards the relationship between a change in the derivative’s fair value and a change in the value of the hedged cash flows or transactions.
The Group’s financial liabilities are initially recognised and subsequently classified either into financial liabilities recognised at amortised cost or financial liabilities recognised at fair value through the statement of income. Financial liabilities are classified as current unless the Group has the unconditional right to defer the payment of the debt to at least 12 months from the end of the financial period. Financial liabilities (or parts thereof) are only derecognised once the debt has extinguished, i.e. once the contractually specified obligation is discharged, cancelled or expires.
Financial liabilities recognised at amortised cost
Financial liabilities recognised at amortised cost include trade and other payables, loans and borrowings.
The loans raised by the Group are included in financial liabilities recognised at amortised cost. They are measured at their initial recognition at fair value using the effective interest rate method. After the initial recognition, loans are measured at amortised cost. Interests on loans are expensed through the statement of income over the maturity of the debt using the effective interest rate method.
Financial liabilities recognised at fair value through the statement of income
In the Wärtsilä Group, financial liabilities recognised at fair value through the statement of income include derivatives that are not eligible for hedge accounting. Realised and unrealised gains and losses from changes in fair values of derivatives are recognised in the statement of income in the period in which they have arisen.
Derivatives and hedge accounting
Derivatives are measured at fair value. Gains and losses from fair value measurement are treated as determined by the purpose of the derivatives. The effects on results of changes in the value of derivatives that are eligible for hedge accounting and that are effective hedging instruments are presented consistently with the hedged item. The effective portion of the change in the fair value is deferred into the cash flow reserve through OCI and will be recognised in profit or loss when the hedged item affects profit or loss. Impact from ineffective hedging instruments is recognised in financial income and expenses immediately.
For derivatives eligible for hedge accounting, the Group documents the relationship between each hedging instrument and the hedged asset upon entering into a hedging arrangement, along with the risk management objective and the strategy applied. Through this process, the hedging instrument is linked to the relevant assets and liabilities, projected business transactions or binding contracts. The Group also documents its ongoing assessment of the effectiveness of the hedge regarding the relationship between a change in the derivative’s fair value and a change in the value of the hedged cash flows or transactions.
Hedging of sales and purchases
Wärtsilä hedges its sales and purchases in foreign currencies with foreign exchange derivatives or currency options. Certain foreign exchange derivatives are eligible for hedge accounting. Changes in the fair value of derivative contracts designated to hedge future cash flows are recognised in other comprehensive income and presented in the fair value reserve in equity, provided that the hedging is effective. The ineffective portion is immediately recognised in the financial items in the statement of income for the financial period. Changes in fair value due to interest rate differences are recognised in the statement of income. Any gain or loss in the fair value reserve accumulated through other comprehensive income is reported as an adjustment to net sales or material and services in the same period as any transactions relating to the hedged obligations or estimates. Currency forwards are measured at forward rates at the end of the financial period and currency options at their market value at the end of the financial period.
Derivatives not included in hedge accounting
For derivatives not included in hedge accounting, changes in fair value are immediately recognised in financial income or expenses in the statement of income. For example, interest rate swap hedges belong to this group. The fair value of interest rate swaps is calculated by discounting the future cash flows.
Fair value hierarchy
Financial instruments measured at fair value are classified according to the following fair value hierarchy: instruments measured using quoted prices in active markets (level 1), instruments measured using inputs other than quoted prices included in level 1 observable either directly or indirectly (level 2), and instruments measured using inputs that are not based on observable market data (level 3). Financial instruments measured at fair value include financial assets and liabilities at fair value through the statement of income.
Contract balances consist of customer-related assets and liabilities.
When control over goods or services is transferred to a customer before the customer pays the consideration, the receivable is recognised as a contract asset. The contract asset represents the right to future consideration.
When the customer pays consideration in advance, or the consideration is due before transferring the contractual performance obligation, the amount received in advance is presented as a contract liability. Contract liabilities are recognised as revenue when the Group performs under the contract.
Provisions and contingent liabilities
Provisions are recognised in the statement of financial position when the Group has a present legal or constructive obligation as a result of a past event, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Provisions can arise, for example, from warranties, environmental risks, litigation, foreseeable losses on projects and restructuring costs. The amount to be recognised as provisions corresponds to the management’s best estimate of the expenses that will be necessary to meet the existing obligation at the end of the financial period.
Estimated future warranty costs relating to products delivered are recorded as provisions. The amount of future warranty costs is based on accumulated experience.
Provisions for restructuring costs are made once the restructuring plan has been approved and the implementation started or the personnel concerned have been informed of the terms. The plan must indicate which activities and personnel will be affected and the timing and cost of implementation.
Contingent liabilities are possible obligations resulting from previous events, the existence of which will only be ascertained once the uncertain event that is beyond the Group’s control materialises. Existing obligations that are not likely to require the fulfilment of a payment obligation or the amount of which cannot be reliably determined are also considered contingent liabilities. Contingent liabilities are presented in the notes.
The statement of income includes taxes on the Group’s consolidated taxable income for the financial period in accordance with local tax regulations, tax adjustments for previous financial periods and changes in deferred taxes. Tax effects related to transactions recognised through the statement of income and other events are recognised in the statement of income. Tax effects related to transactions or other events to be presented as components of other comprehensive income or directly in equity are also recognised, respectively, in other comprehensive income or directly in equity.
Deferred tax liabilities and assets are calculated on temporary differences arising from the difference between the tax basis of assets and liabilities and the carrying values using the enacted tax rates at the end of the financial period. The statement of financial position includes deferred tax liabilities in their entirety and deferred tax assets at their estimated probable amount.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset when there is a legally enforceable right to offset current tax assets against current tax liabilities, and when the deferred tax assets and liabilities relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority on either the same taxable entity or different taxable entities which intend to settle the balances on a net basis.
The dividend proposed by the Board of Directors is deducted from distributable equity when approved by the company’s Annual General Meeting.
Adoption of new and updated IFRS standards
In 2019, the Group will adopt the following new and amended standards and interpretations issued by the IASB.
New IFRS 16 Leases (effective for financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2019): IFRS 16 addresses the definition, recognition and measurement of lease agreements and notes related to leases. The standard replaces IAS 17 Leases.
IFRS 16 changes the accounting for operating leases by requiring companies to recognise lease assets and lease liabilities in the balance sheet, initially measured at the present value of unavoidable future lease payments, and to depreciate those assets and interest on lease liabilities in the statement of income over the lease term. Whether a contract contains a lease is determined on the basis of whether the customer has the right to control the use of an identified asset for a period of time.
When adapting IFRS 16, the portion of the lease payments currently included in other operating expenses in the consolidated statement of income will be transferred to depreciations and amortisations and the interest portion to financial expenses. The standard will affect primarily the accounting for the Group´s operating leases increasing the balance sheet totals and some changes in key figures. At the reporting date, the Group has operating lease commitments of EUR 266 million, see note 29. Collateral, contingent liabilities and other commitments. Based on the Group´s estimation the net present value of the capitalised lease liability amounts to EUR 212 million according to the following bridge calculation:
|Nominal amount of rents according to leasing contracts on 31 December 2018||284|
|Variable lease payments||-23|
|Expenses relating to short-term leases and leases of low-value assets||-15|
|Leases not yet commenced to which Wärtsilä is committed||-3|
|Nominal amount of lease liability on 1 January 2019||240|
The Group will apply the two available exceptions, which relate to either short-term contracts in which the lease term is less than 12 months or less, or low value assets, which are expensed to other operating expenses. The Group will apply the modified approach in transition.
Amendments to IAS 28 Long-term Interests in Associates and Joint Ventures* (effective for financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2019). The amendments clarify that IFRS 9 Financial Instruments is applied to the accounting for long-term interest in an associate or joint venture to which the equity method is not applied. The amendments will have no impact on the consolidated financial statements.
Amendment to IAS 19 Plan Amendment, Curtailment or Settlement* (effective for financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2019). This amendment clarifies the accounting when a plan amendment, curtailment or settlement occurs during a reporting period. The amendment specifies that when a plan amendment, curtailment or settlement occurs during the annual reporting period, an entity is required to use updated assumptions to determine the current service cost and net interest. The interpretation would have an impact on the consolidated financial statements in the case of curtailments or settlements.
Amendments to IFRS 9 Prepayment Features with Negative Compensation (effective for financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2019). Prepayment Features with Negative Compensation amends the existing requirements in IFRS 9 regarding termination rights in order to allow measurement at amortised cost (or, depending on the business model, at fair value through other comprehensive income) even in the case of negative compensation payments. Without the amendment these financial assets would have had to be measured at FVPL. The amendments will have no impact on the consolidated financial statements.
IFRIC 23 Uncertainty over income tax treatment (effective for financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2019). This interpretation addresses the accounting for income taxes when tax treatments involve uncertainty that affects the application of IAS 12. The key matter is whether the tax authority will accept the chosen tax treatment. When considering this, the assumption is that tax authorities will have full knowledge of all relevant information in assessing the proposed tax treatment. The interpretation will not have any significant impact on the consolidated financial statements.
Annual improvements to IFRSs 2015-2017 cycle*: Annual improvements include smaller amendments to four standards. The improvements are not expected to have an impact on the consolidated financial statement.
The Group expects to adopt later than 2019 the following new standards and amendments to the existing standards already issued by the IASB.
IFRS 17 Insurance contracts* (effective from financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2021). IFRS 17 applies to all types of insurance contracts (direct insurance and re-insurance) regardless of the type of entities that issue them, as well as to certain guarantees and financial instruments with discretionary participation features. The overall objective is to provide a consistent accounting model for insurance contracts. The impact is under review within the Group.
* Not yet endorsed for use by the European Union as of 31 December 2018.
Internal transfer of service activities
Wärtsilä has decided to transfer certain service activities from Marine Solutions to Services as of 1 January 2018. The aim is to strengthen the focus on the development of these activities. The comparison periods for 2017 have been restated, resulting in EUR 177 million in net sales, EUR 190 million in order intake, and EUR 49 million in the order book being transferred from Marine Solutions to Services for the financial period 2017. This transfer has no impact on Group totals.